Determining the Relative Risk of Smoking and Physical Inactivity in Developing Osteopenia and Osteoporosis


  • Farwa Abid University of Sialkot
  • Hira Khalid Maryam Hospital
  • Faria Qasim Hamza Hospital Lahore
  • Ayaman Qazi Khyber Medical University
  • Mishal gul Asif Islam Teaching Hospital
  • Muhammad Mustafa Khyber Medical University


Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Osteopenia, Physical Activity, Smoking



Tobacco consumption is a widely recognized risk factor influencing various diseases' progression worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, tobacco consumption is responsible for 6.5 million deaths annually. Thus, the present study examined the relationship between smoking, physical inactivity, and the risk of developing osteoporosis and osteopenia.


This cross-sectional study included a population-based sample of 250 participants aged 45-65. Written consent was obtained from the participants, and the study focused on assessing their smoking status. The cigarette dependency scale was utilized to measure the level of dependency on smoking.


Compared to non-smokers, active smokers had a significantly higher risk (p<0.005) of developing osteoporosis at the femoral neck (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0) and lumbar spine (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.7). Furthermore, the low physical activity group had significantly higher odds ratios (p<0.05) for developing osteoporosis and osteopenia compared to the high physical activity group at the femoral neck (OR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7) and lumbar spine (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5).


The study has concluded that bone mineral density at the femoral bone and lumbar spine level has significantly been reduced among active and former smokers compared to the non-smoker group.



Author Biographies

Farwa Abid, University of Sialkot

Senior Lecturer

Hira Khalid, Maryam Hospital

Physical Therapist

Faria Qasim, Hamza Hospital Lahore

Physical Therapist

Ayaman Qazi, Khyber Medical University


Mishal gul Asif, Islam Teaching Hospital

Physical Therapist

Muhammad Mustafa, Khyber Medical University

Assistant Professor


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