Effects of Massage Therapy for Achilles Tendinopathy - A Meta-Analysis on Determining the Effects on Pain and Functional Outcome


  • Sumaira Abdul Ghani Iqra University
  • Zulekha Saleem Ziauddin University
  • Fatima Masood Ziauddin University


Achilles tendon, Massage, Pain



Achilles tendinopathy has become more common during the last thirty years, and this rise has been linked to increased participation in leisure and competitive sports. The condition is commonly seen among those who participate in activities such as running and jumping.


The study thoroughly assessed pertinent literature as part of its search approach. Reputable academic databases, such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, and Pedro, were searched from 2015 to 2023 by an impartial reviewer. Studies examining massage therapy’s impact on Achilles tendinopathy were included, emphasizing pain relief and functional enhancements.


The meta-analysis examined three trials to evaluate the impact of a particular intervention (Kousar et al., 2022; Bussin et al., 2021; McCormack et al., 2016). An SMD of -0.788 (95% CI: -1.139 to -0.438, p<0.001) indicated a statistically significant overall impact in the fixed-effects and random-effects model, with an SMD of -0.950 (95% CI: -2.745 to 0.844, p = 0.297). With a CI ranging from -3.064 to -1.837, Kousar et al. analysis of individual studies revealed a sizeable negative impact (SMD=-2.450), indicating a significant outcome in favor of the intervention. A less favorable result was indicated by Bussin et al.’s small positive impact (SMD=0.192), which had a CI of -0.292 to 0.676. Although the CI was broader, from -1.636 to 0.456, McCormack et al. observed a negative impact (SMD=-0.590), indicating a significant result favoring the intervention. The test for heterogeneity (I2 = 95.62%, p<0.0001) found a high degree of inconsistency, indicating significant diversity between the investigations.


These results imply that even if proof of a sizable overall impact exists, more investigation is necessary to identify and address variability-related causes in improving the precision and generalizability of the intervention’s benefits.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.59564/amrj/01.02/016


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