Unveiling the Roadmap to Heart Health: Evaluating Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Adults of Karachi


  • Humera Ambreen Shifa Tamer-e-Millat University
  • Nooria Naeem Dar Mukabbir College Gujrat
  • Moazzma Ahmad Benazir Bhutto hospital Rawalpindi
  • Suhail Karim Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Rameela Jabbar Emaan Hospital
  • Hina Javed Dewan University


Cardiovascular Diseases, Health Education, Knowledge, Risk Factors



As a result of urbanization and lifestyle modifications, the burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is rising in developing nations. These nations' scarce resources and low literacy rates make it difficult to effectively manage CVDs. For prevention efforts, knowledge of modifiable risk factors is essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge levels among people who had their first acute myocardial infarction and to identify variables related to a thorough comprehension of modifiable CVD risk factors.



In a cardiovascular disease centre in Lahore, Pakistan, a cross-sectional study was carried out. Anyone who was admitted to the hospital with an acute myocardial infarction diagnosis was eligible to participate. To assess knowledge of modifiable risk factors, such as fatty food consumption, smoking, obesity, and inactivity, a structured questionnaire was given to participants. For analysis, descriptive statistics were employed.



80 participants were included; 60% of them were men, and their average age was 50.2 years. Participants demonstrated good knowledge of smoking and exercise, but there were misconceptions about eating fatty foods and becoming obese. Moreover, the general Pakistani population's knowledge levels were consistent across studies.



While participants demonstrated reasonable knowledge of modifiable risk factors for CVDs, there were gaps in understanding, particularly related to fatty food consumption, obesity, and exercise. Targeted educational interventions and awareness campaigns are needed to address these gaps and promote healthier lifestyle choices. Increased knowledge can contribute to better prevention and management of CVDs.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.59564/amrj/01.02/012

Author Biographies

Humera Ambreen, Shifa Tamer-e-Millat University

Senior Lecturer


Nooria Naeem Dar, Mukabbir College Gujrat



Moazzma Ahmad, Benazir Bhutto hospital Rawalpindi


Suhail Karim, Universiti Sains Malaysia

PhD Scholar


Rameela Jabbar, Emaan Hospital




Hina Javed, Dewan University




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